How Big Can Sturgeon Get

Atlantic Sturgeon: How Big Can Sturgeon Get

Atlantic sturgeon, known for their unique appearance and slow growth, are fascinating creatures that have captured the attention of researchers and conservationists. From their distinctive bony plates to their long lifespan, Atlantic sturgeon have a rich history that dates back thousands of years. Let’s delve deeper into the world of Atlantic sturgeon and explore just how big these magnificent fish can get.

About the Species

Atlantic sturgeon, found in rivers and coastal waters from Canada to Florida, embark on a remarkable journey from freshwater to the sea and back for spawning. These majestic creatures boast five rows of bony plates called scutes along their bodies, along with a unique snout featuring four slender barbels. With a maximum recorded length of up to 14 feet and a lifespan of up to 60 years, Atlantic sturgeon are truly remarkable beings.

Population Status

Despite their historical abundance, Atlantic sturgeon populations have significantly declined due to overfishing and habitat loss. Today, all five U.S. Atlantic sturgeon distinct population segments are listed as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The primary threats facing Atlantic sturgeon include entanglement in fishing gear, habitat degradation, and vessel strikes.


Atlantic sturgeon can grow up to approximately 16 feet in length and weigh as much as 800 pounds. Their bluish-black or olive brown coloration, along with five major rows of bony plates, sets them apart from other species. While they bear resemblance to shortnose sturgeon, Atlantic sturgeon can be distinguished by their larger size and unique physical features.

Behavior and Diet

Spawning runs of Atlantic sturgeon are still not fully understood, with variations observed in different regions. These bottom feeders primarily consume invertebrates like crustaceans and mollusks, as well as bottom-dwelling fish such as sand lance. Their migratory patterns and feeding habits contribute to the intricate ecosystem they are part of.

Where They Live

Historically ranging from Labrador to Florida, Atlantic sturgeon are anadromous fish that migrate between freshwater and marine environments. While breeding populations still exist in several U.S. rivers, the abundance of natal populations has decreased significantly. Tagging data reveals that immature Atlantic sturgeon travel extensively along the East Coast and even as far as Iceland.

Lifespan & Reproduction

The lifespan of Atlantic sturgeon varies based on their location, with individuals in Canada living up to 60 years compared to 25-30 years in the Southeast. These slow-maturing fish reach sexual maturity at different ages across regions. Female Atlantic sturgeon produce hundreds of thousands to millions of eggs, with spawning intervals ranging from 1 to 5 years for males and 2 to 5 years for females.


Atlantic sturgeon face significant threats such as unintended catch in commercial fisheries, habitat degradation, and vessel strikes. Bycatch in gillnet and trawl fisheries, dams blocking access to spawning areas, and poor water quality are among the key challenges impacting their survival. Conservation efforts are crucial to protect these endangered creatures and their habitats.

Scientific Classification

Belonging to the Animalia kingdom, Atlantic sturgeon fall under the Chordata phylum and Acipenseriformes order. With their unique characteristics and ecological significance, Atlantic sturgeon play a vital role in the marine ecosystem.

What We Do

NOAA Fisheries is dedicated to the conservation and management of Atlantic sturgeon populations through various measures. From preserving existing habitat to monitoring bycatch and supporting research programs, efforts are underway to protect and recover these magnificent fish. Education and public awareness also play a crucial role in safeguarding the future of Atlantic sturgeon.

FAQs about Atlantic Sturgeon

1. What is the maximum size Atlantic sturgeon can reach?

Atlantic sturgeon can grow up to approximately 16 feet in length and weigh as much as 800 pounds, making them one of the largest freshwater fish species.

2. Why are Atlantic sturgeon listed as endangered or threatened species?

Atlantic sturgeon populations have declined due to overfishing, habitat loss, and other threats, leading to their classification as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act.

3. What are the primary threats to Atlantic sturgeon?

The primary threats to Atlantic sturgeon include unintended catch in commercial fisheries, habitat degradation, habitat impediments like dams, and vessel strikes.

4. How do Atlantic sturgeon contribute to the ecosystem?

Atlantic sturgeon play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem as bottom feeders, helping maintain the balance of aquatic populations by consuming invertebrates and bottom-dwelling fish.

5. What conservation efforts are in place to protect Atlantic sturgeon?

Conservation efforts include preserving habitat, monitoring bycatch, supporting research programs, and raising public awareness about the importance of protecting Atlantic sturgeon populations.

6. How can individuals contribute to the conservation of Atlantic sturgeon?

Individuals can support conservation efforts by advocating for sustainable fishing practices, reducing pollution in waterways, and participating in initiatives aimed at protecting the habitats of Atlantic sturgeon.

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